1. What is QTS?
QTS is a status, granted to teachers who have demonstrated that they have met the required professional standards to be able to teach in maintained schools, non-maintained special schools or pupil referral units in England. Without QTS a teacher cannot register with the General Teaching Council for England (GTCE) and, therefore, cannot be employed as a qualified teacher in state schools. The TRA is the awarding body for QTS.
2. How is QTS awarded?
Trainee teachers undertake a training course that has been accredited by the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA). The TRA awards QTS when it is informed by an accredited teacher training provider that a trainee has met all the standards for QTS. The TRA will then process the result and issue the teacher with a QTS certificate or, in some cases, a letter confirming that the teacher holds QTS.
Note: Teacher Reference Numbers (TRNs) are issued to trainee teachers during their training. A TRN is not proof that a person holds QTS.
Teachers who qualified in Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland or the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland are entitled to request that the GTCE recognises their qualifications and awards them QTS in England without further training.
3. Is a PGCE or BEd qualification the same as QTS?
No. The academic award, such as a PGCE or teaching degree, is separate and a trainee may meet the academic requirements but still fail to meet the standards laid down for QTS. The skills tests are one of these standards and trainees will not be awarded QTS until they have passed them. Also the academic award may be aimed at the post-16 sector. Qualifications for the post-16 sector do not lead to the award of QTS.
4. QTS and the skills tests
The standards for QTS require that a trainee teacher passes the relevant skills tests before QTS can be awarded. Those who were awarded QTS between 1 May 2001 and 20 April 2002 were required to pass the numeracy and literacy skills tests. Those who completed initial teacher training on 1 May 2002 and later are required to have passed the numeracy, literacy and ICT skills tests.
*Different arrangements apply for trainees who completed their training prior to May 2002 and these are outlined below:
A teacher cannot begin induction until they have been awarded QTS. Any period of induction undertaken before QTS is awarded is invalid.
From 1 September 2008, those who have completed initial teacher training but have not been awarded QTS because they have not passed all of the skills tests cannot be lawfully employed as teachers. They could teach as an instructor providing the instructor requirements set out in paragraph 7 are satisfied. If they pass the skills tests at a later date and are awarded QTS, they can teach lawfully as qualified teachers.
Once QTS has been awarded, the teacher becomes an NQT and is required to begin the induction period. Until they have successfully completed this they remain an NQT. If they fail their induction, they are barred from working as a qualified teacher, although their QTS award is not removed. Appropriate bodies (LAs and the ISC) inform the GTCE of induction results and the GTCE issues induction certificates to successful teachers.
6. Who does the law allow to teach?
From 1 September 2008 the following people can do 'specified work' (the way that the law describes usual teaching activity) in maintained schools or non-maintained special schools in England:
All new FE teachers appointed after1 September 2007 (and many existing FE teachers) will now be following the new FE QTLS (Qualified Teacher: Learning and Skills) qualifications pathway. Lifelong Learning UK is currently working with TDA to assess and develop appropriate development modules to enable teachers holding QTLS status to teach in schools. Teachers in schools who hold QTS will similarly be required to undertake appropriate CPD to teach in FE. This will enable them to achieve the FE QTLS award. The FE sector is introducing a requirement that FE teachers must evidence their core skills. Further information is available on the following websites:
Instructors are 'unqualified teachers' who the law allows to carry out the same duties as qualified teachers. Instructors can be employed:
This is by no means an exhaustive list but examples of instructors might include:
8. Overseas Trained Teachers (OTTs)
Overseas trained teachers (i.e. those who qualified as teachers in countries outside of the EEA and Switzerland) are allowed to work as unqualified teachers for a maximum of four years without the need to gain QTS. This four-year period begins on the first day that a teacher takes up their post in a maintained school or non-maintained special school and expires four calendar years later.
If an overseas trained teacher (OTT) wishes to be awarded QTS, they will need to have had the award made before their four year exemption period ends. Any enquiry that they have concerning QTS should be directed to the TDA on 0845 6000 991.
Note: Although OTTs are qualified in their own countries you will need to satisfy yourself that their competence and experience satisfies the needs of your school.
Full guidance on employing OTTs, including details of new Home Office arrangements which replace the work permit system November 2008, is available here.
9. Other teachers without QTS
Headteachers also can appoint other teachers without QTS to carry out specified work but only under the direction and supervision of a nominated qualified teacher. These are usually but not exclusively Teaching Assistants and Higher Level Teaching Assistants They must have skills, qualifications and experience relevant to the subject they teach. There is no limit to the length of time they can teach. However, overseas trained teachers without QTS after four years and people who completed initial teacher training but were not awarded QTS because they have not passed all of the skills tests are not allowed to teach under this category.
10. Safeguarding pupils and students
Finally, remember that all new staff must have suitable DBS checks. Details of what is required are given in guidance we issued in November 2006: Safeguarding Children and Safer Recruitment in Education, and you can find it here. If you have enquires about these matters call the DfE on 0870 000 2288.
Beyond the exceptions given above, you should expect that anyone you plan to appoint does have QTS and the only way to be certain, regardless of any other qualifications they may offer you, is to check with the TRA.
If you require a Health & Safety Certificate for Design Technology, please contact the person below
St Michaels, Tenterden
Kent TN30 6TD
Tel: 01580 292806 or 01634 844008 or
Areas of accreditation:
Term Time Teachers Ltd do not work with Umbrella Companies. We have spoken with our Tax Advisors who clearly inform us that we are to continue to refuse to pay via this method. We are aware that some supply teachers who work for a teacher supply agency are employed via an Umbrella Company. If you are on supply and are currently working for an Umbrella Company please note that Term Time Teachers Ltd with only provide standard PAYE. Please also note the following information provided by Inland Revenue;
Tax relief for travel expenses: temporary workers and overarching contracts
This consultation document seeks to expand and test the Government's analysis of those structures using overarching employment contracts -umbrella companies and employment agencies in terms of the size of the sector, their role within the wider labour market and the extent of the problems arising from the use of these structures.
Umbrella companies and some employment agencies make use of overarching employment contracts which enable some temporary workers to gain tax relief for travel expenses not available to others working in similar circumstances. There is also evidence of widespread abuse of the travel expenses rules by these structures. Non-compliance and the use of these structures to pay less income tax and national insurance contributions (NICs) lead to a loss to the Exchequer, as well as further problems.
Please go to the East Sussex County Council link regarding GTP
The TRA is the Teaching Regulation Agency. It is the registration body for all teachers who hold QTS in England. Wales and Scotland have their own GTC.
The TRA was set up in the late 90's by the government . It is similar to the doctors registration list.
Teachers holding QTS receive a registration card for the academic year and magazines about teaching throughout the year.
The cost per year is £33.00
All teachers who work on supply and teach in mainstream or SEN state schools or schools that hold DFE creditation, are required by LAW to join.
On 16/11/06, I contacted The Induction Team at The TDA.
This is what they told me.
*NQTs who work on supply have only 4 terms to start their INDUCTION*
When working on supply, if you complete your induction at one school you have the standard 6 terms (1 academic year) in which to do this.
If you work in more than one school per two terms, you will have 8 terms to complete.
links removed from this article as they no longer exist
The Department consulted recently about trainee teachers who fail skills tests and Overseas Trained Teachers (OTTs). Subject to Parliamentary approval, the DCSF have decided on the following changes: existing teachers who have not passed the skills tests will have to do so before 31 August 2008 to remain in teaching; OTTs without QTS cannot teach beyond the four year limit even if they are on an employment-based route into teaching at the time, effective from 1 September 2008; any deadline on unqualified teachers can be extended to take account of absence from work on statutory maternity, adoption, paternity or parental leave, or because of pregnancy, effective from 1 September 2007.
The updated guidance is subject to Parliamentary approval of amending regulations.
You can find out more information from the following website
What does the High/Scope Approach look like?
The diagram below illustrates the curriculum principles that guide High/Scope practitioners in their daily work with children
The High/Scope Wheel
Does the High/Scope Approach really work?
High/Scope is unique in having a 40 year longitudinal study in validation of its work with children. The results of these research studies show how the High/Scope Approach to early years education produces lasting benefits for children, families and society. The following examples are specific findings from the research studies.
Children who had experienced the High/Scope Approach as adolescents and adults showed:
High/Scope is a quality approach to children's learning that is widely used in the UK. High/Scope recognises the uniqueness of each child and develops their self-confidence by building on what they can do. This Approach is based on sound educational principles, as detailed below.
Children learn best by being active - by engaging with people, materials, events and ideas in ways that are direct, immediate and meaningful to them. Every aspect of the High/Scope Approach supports active learning.
Children have a natural desire to learn. High/Scope recognises and supports this. It encourages children to use their initiative, to plan and to develop their own strengths and interests. The Plan-Do-Review process gives children the opportunity to create and express their intentions, to generate their own learning experiences and to reflect on those experiences
To become confident, independent learners, children need consistency. The High/Scope Approach provides this through the daily routine, the organisation of the learning environment and in the ways that adults interact with children.
Children achieve more when they feel happy and secure. High/Scope practitioners bring genuine warmth and trust to their relationships with children. They also respect and value each child's personal and cultural identity.
Building a Strong Partnership with Parents High/Scope practitioners recognise that parents and practitioners need to form authentic relationships and share their unique knowledge and experience with one another to support children's learning and well being.
Children need a curriculum that is appropriate to their intellectual, emotional and physical development. The High/Scope Curriculum has been developed through extensive observations of young children learning. It is based on key development indicators (formerly Key Experiences) and offers children the foundation of knowledge, skills and ideas that supports the Early Years Foundation Stage while creating confident learners.
Interested in knowing more or wish to find out how to become a High/Scope Practitioner?
Our How Can We Help? section also details what we offer to individuals, organisations and partnerships seeking to implement the High/Scope Approach.
What are my responsibilities for child protection?
Circular 10/95 sets out the responsibilities of LEAs, schools and teachers in protecting children from abuse and neglect.
The key points for the individual teacher are that:
Is physical contact with pupils illegal?
The legislation on discipline and child protection does not make it illegal for you simply to touch a pupil. As Circular 10/95 makes clear: 'It is unnecessary and unrealistic to suggest that teachers should touch pupils only in emergencies.' Touching younger pupils 'is inevitable' as teachers reassure them and support them. Nevertheless, as a teacher, you 'must bear in mind that even perfectly innocent actions can sometimes be misconstrued'. Some pupils may find any physical contact distressing. It should be stating the obvious, but the Circular emphasises the point: 'It is also important not to touch pupils, however casually, in ways or on parts of the body that might be considered indecent.' (para. 49).
It is widely recognised as good practice that a teacher should avoid being alone with a pupil in confined and secluded areas.
The UK NARIC is the National Agency for the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). They are the only official information provider on the comparability of international qualifications from over 180 countries worldwide.
If you qualified overseas, you must produce your qualifications to NARIC who will assess your qualifications and record what they are as an equivalent to UK qualifications.
Most EU countries recognise the qualifications of other EU states.
For more information go to the NARIC website.
Disclosure and Barring Service commonly known as DBS. The document that is provided by DBS is also commonly known as a DBS.
What is a DBS?
What does a DBS tell an employer?
How long does a DBS last for?
(a) do not have a break of service that is longer than 3 months
(b) stay working with the same school / agency
(c) have the same details and circumstances
Do I need a DBS?
How can I get more information ?
Ways of working with the new professional standards
Access resources developed by CPD leaders who are working to exemplify the new standards.
The Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA) has just published a revised set of professional standards for teachers. These will replace existing classroom teacher standards from September 2007.
Many CPD leaders have already begun to explore the new standards to see how they can be used in schools. In May 2007 Connect brought together a group of these teachers, launching a small scale project that the TRA aim to continue next year as part of their ‘Personalising CPD' work.
The TRA would like to hear from any Connect member who is either developing strategies for using the new professional standards, or would like to be involved in future work with them. Email your interest to email@example.com
What we can learn from the standards
Consider the resources developed below. Much of it is still work-in-progress, but the TRA hope it will stimulate new ideas and approaches for your own work
Toolkit for Standards (PDF, 81kb): in order to avoid duplicating the language of the standards or creating an unwieldy document, a group of Suffolk headteachers (primary, secondary and special), compiled a list of evidence and some FAQs.
Self Evaluation Matrix (Word, 57kb): a tool, based on the standards, to help teachers to assess their own progress and identify gaps in knowledge, skills and experience that require more professional development.
Professional Development Portfolios: a framework (PDF, 23kb): a rationale for the use of development portfolios.
The TRA have left teachers with two questions
Your thoughts on these questions, and any of the above resources, are welcomed by TRA. Email firstname.lastname@example.org
You may find the overview of the TRA's latest Research of the Month - ‘Reflection in action and reflection on action' - helpful in supporting your performance management reviews.
The name 'Synthetic Phonics' comes from the concept of 'synthesising', which means 'putting together' or 'blending'. What is synthesised/put together/blended in reading are the sounds prompted by the letters on the page.
According to the Clackmannanshire 7 year longitudinal study, '[Synthetic phonics] is a very accelerated form of phonics that does not begin by establishing an initial sight vocabulary. With this approach, before children are introduced to books, they are taught letter sounds. After the first few of these have been taught they are shown how these sounds can be blended together to build up words (Feitelson, 1988). For example, when taught the letter sounds /t/ /p/ /a/ and /s/, the children can build up the words 'tap,' 'pat, 'pats', 'taps', 'sat', etc. The children are not told the pronunciation of the new word either before it is constructed with magnetic letters or indeed afterwards; the children sound each letter in turn and synthesise the sounds together in order to generate the pronunciation of the word. Thus the children construct the pronunciation for themselves. Most of the letter sound correspondences, including the consonant and vowel digraphs, can be taught in the space of a few months at the start of their first year at school. This means that children can read many of the unfamiliar words they meet in text for themselves, without the assistance of the teacher'.
Common terminology used within the Synthetic Phonics method includes :
What it is
What it is NOT
What a typical Synthetic Phonics programme consists of
For example, /mm/ not muh, /ss/ not suh, /ff/ not fuh. The letter names can be taught later but should not be taught in the early stages.
The English Alphabet Code 'Key' : 44 phonemes with their common 'sound pattern' representations:
In a Bulletin from Inland Revenue in December 2004, they state clearly that teachers are deemed to be employees. Teachers are therefore not allowed to invoice for their teaching or work through a Composite Company (especially if the NIC contributions are not being paid).
For further information please contact Inland Revenue on 08459000404 (between 8:00am and 10:00pm 7 days a week)
IR have the following booklets available free of charge
Watch on Sky 880, Virgin TV 240 Tiscali TV 845, and Freeview 88
Please click on the link and find out more
1. An overseas trained teacher (OTT) is a person who qualified as a teacher in a country outside of the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland. They must have successfully completed a course of initial teacher training which is recognised by the relevant authorities in their home countries. The Education (Specified Work and Registration) (England) Regulations 2003 (SI 2003/1663) and the Education (Specified Work and Registration) (England) (Amendment) Regulations 2007 (SI 2007/2117) set out the conditions under which overseas trained teachers are allowed to carry out specified work (i.e. teach) in state maintained and non-maintained special schools in England.
The four year rule
2. OTTs are allowed to teach in state maintained schools and non-maintained special schools in England as unqualified teachers for four calendar years. They are not permitted to teach in Pupil Referral Units unless they have been awarded qualified teacher status (QTS). The four year period an OTT is allowed to work as an unqualified teacher begins on the first day the OTT taught in a state maintained school or a non-maintained special school in England and expires exactly four years later regardless of whether the OTT has taught throughout the four year period.
For example, if a teacher first teaches on 10 September 2005, they are allowed to teach without QTS until 9 September 2009. The expiry date will remain 9 September 2009 even if the teacher did not teach for the whole period between 10 September 2005 and 9 September 2009.
Teachers who qualified in countries outside of the EEA and Switzerland are still subject to the four year rule even if they do not require Home Office permission to work or remain in the UK.
Advice for OTTs
3. It is essential that schools, local authorities and employment agencies make OTTs aware on their appointment that there is a legal limit on the length of time they are allowed to teach without QTS. It is strongly recommended that the following action is undertaken by OTTs either before or shortly after arrival in the UK:
(a) they arrange a check with UK NARIC (0870 330 7033) to establish whether their home qualifications are equivalent to a UK first degree and also to a GCSE grade 'C' in maths and English (and science if the person is a primary teacher). It is important these checks are carried out at an early stage as some teachers may need to top up their qualifications before they can undertake QTS training and extra time is not available for this purpose.
(b) arrange to undertake an employment based training course leading to QTS by contacting the Training and Development Agency for Schools' Overseas Trained Teacher helpline on 0845 6000 998.
4. The Department has produced a publication 'Overseas Trained Teachers - what you need to know' which can be obtained from DCSF publications on 0845 6022260 (please quote the reference 00898-2007LEF-EN) or Download it. It would be helpful if the leaflet is issued to OTTs when they take up post.
The position of OTTs after four years
5. In order to teach after four years, OTTs must have been awarded Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) by the Teaching Reglation Agency in England. OTTs who have been awarded QTS by the end of their four year period become qualified teachers and are allowed to continue teaching subject to UK Border Agency approval if required under the terms of their UK entry.
6. It is unlawful for OTTs to continue teaching in state maintained schools and non-maintained special schools in England beyond four years if they have not been awarded QTS. The temporary arrangement which allowed OTTs without QTS to teach after four years providing they were undertaking an employment based training programme ended on 31 August 2008. The policy has been restored to its original and intended position. OTTs without QTS may only teach after four years if:
(i) they have taken statutory maternity, paternity, adoption or parental leave during the four year period. In such cases, the OTT is eligible for extra time equal to the amount of statutory maternity, parental, adoption or parental leave taken under the Employment Rights Act 1996.
For example, if a teacher has taken 34 weeks maternity leave during her 4 year period, she is allowed an extra 34 weeks to obtain QTS.
(ii) they are employed as an Instructor who fills a teaching post but only when a school is unable to recruit a suitable qualified or trainee teacher. The requirement is that an Instructor has skills, qualifications and experience relevant to the teaching post in question. The instructor appointment should only be made when a school cannot recruit a qualified or trainee teacher. It is temporary until the post can be filled.
7. As Instructors are not included on the UK Border Agency shortage occupation list, a work permit may only be issued if the position has been advertised separately for a teacher and then an instructor. If there is no resident labour available, a work permit may be issued for one year initially. Further applications to extend the work permit will also be subject to the above advertising requirements.
Important new UK Border Agency requirements
8. The UK Border Agency (UKBA) is introducing a new points-based system. The current work permit arrangements ends in late November 2008 and will be replaced by new arrangements for bringing overseas workers to the UK, including overseas-trained teachers. This will involve a new process based on sponsorship and involves new fees. Schools and local authorities who use OTTS will need to be registered sponsors before they can bring OTTs to the UK. School and LAs intending to become sponsors should apply to UKBA for a sponsor licence by 1 October 2008 so they are ready to issue certificates of sponsorship when the new scheme opens. You will find more information here. When the exact start date of the new scheme is announced, we will send an email to schools and local authorities.
Babies are usually born programmed to learn important skills such as speaking, socialising or walking in predictable sequences of stages, with the help of encouragement, teaching and support as they grow up. These skills usually develop in predictable sequences and at predictable times. There are well-established average ages for when these stages of skill development occur, although they are all affected by familial factors (children in some families talk later than in others, walk later, or become dry at night later), racial factors (Black children by and large sit up, crawl and walk earlier than White children do) and social factors (children in homes with lots of books and opportunities to read and where reading is a valued and a frequent pastime will read earlier and better than others). All the above stages of skill development are known as developmental milestones and there are a number of these within recognised areas of development (developmental domains). A child with Developmental Delay has delayed achievement of one or more developmental milestones in one or more developmental domains. A child with Global Developmental Delay (GDD) is one who is delayed in achieving milestones within most, if not all, of these development domains. The prevalence of GDD is estimated to be 5-10 percent of the childhood population, and most children with GDD have impairment of all domains.
These domains of development can be summarized as follows:
Parents will often be the first to worry that their child has delays in one or more developmental domains. However children develop at notoriously different rates and the age at which a particular child reaches a specific developmental milestone can vary substantially. In fact, some children who do not reach developmental milestones on time may catch up later, sometimes with and sometimes without extra support, have no permanent problems and go on to develop normally.
Paediatricians screen routinely for delays and if they suspect GDD they may ask questions regarding the child’s progress and evaluate the child with a number of tests, both developmental (checking out what exactly a child is able to do) and medical (usually to try to find a cause for the developmental difficulties